China's modern history of biological research ideas
Modern biology is not inherent in our cultural heritage, which is introduced from foreign countries to the East and West. Therefore, this study subjects in the course of development of our country, it is necessary to carefully trace the spread of it, take root and grow in all aspects. Its close relations and reality, lessons learned, for today the biological sciences rather reference, the significance is self-evident. Of course the study is also very difficult. Many things in the event, for a variety of complicated relations, but the process did not disclose all information on file, not for judgement and interpretation. In addition, because of what happened Qiejin more difficult to see cause and effect, clarifying the truth and make a reasonable judgement. At the same time, in the course of the study, vulnerable to feelings and emotional waves of Health, described the impact of objectivity. And the relevant parties to the relatives, students may also have to study some human interference. In addition, reviewed the development of the environment, may be complicated by a number of ideological problems. However, despite all the difficulties, or to begin the study. In Gouchen historical facts and clarify the Development of disciplines, restore the historical truth of calm and pragmatic attitude, as much as possible with a comprehensive, systematic, objective and real historical data of past things happened, as far as possible avoid unnecessary side issues and difficult Extricate themselves. In other words, the memory of China's efforts to "things in terms of the letter," the good tradition of historiography, removal "due to heart likes and dislikes, and then Huiyu" bad habit.
China's introduction of modern biology short time, relevant research lacks. However, as China is a country attaches great importance to the history, people have always been concerned about the subjects of the development process and its development experience. In the 1940s, the "science" has been disseminated by the then active in a number of fields biologists write the branch of the state of development of the article. The article for scholars and the public about developments in biology and then popularize knowledge plays an important role. In the 1980's, the number of units to learn anniversary commemoration of the establishment of dozens of opportunities for organizations to write the history of the development of this discipline, such as: China Plant Society (1933) 50th anniversary of the founding of the time, the organization has prepared a "Chinese botanist History "(Science Press, 1994); China physiology (1926) in the 60th anniversary of the founding of the time, the organization prepared by the" History of China Physiology "(Peking Union Medical College Press, 1993). Scientists also have some old work on their own memories to write articles or monographs, such as biochemist Zheng set, Zou Chenglu virologist and noble Yam, physiologist Zhang Xiangtong, Wang Zhijun, and so on. Some concern has always been the history of biological research biologists such as tree entomologist Zou Wen, Zhou Yaohe, plant physiologist Gong Li Liang, Michael Tan Jiazhen, and so on, they have committed to the preparation of the relevant professionals History. Some of the biological sciences departments such as the management of Pan Gao and Xue Wu Chun, also according to their own experiences and related literature to write some information on the biological development of China's history of articles and books.
Modern biology in China's development, but also aroused the concern of some foreign scholars. French scholar-too justification (G. Schneider), since the 1980s has been to China the development of genetics has a special interest in history, has written a monograph in this area; American scholar of Concepción (J. R. Pusey) also The theory of evolution in China spread done many studies. In addition, the U.S. Cornell University in Eagle Rock (K. Adler) had amphibians and reptiles zoology professor at China's development of a comprehensive study done.
In addition, there are a lot of young scholars in doing post-graduate theses, from the biological development of China's modern history of the area chosen topics, such as Chen Shengkun, Cao Yu, Jiang Yuping, Xiong Wei-min, such as by the Science Society of China in modern times The introduction of physiology and molecular biology of development in China, from some specific aspects of the beneficial exploration. Some of the history of science workers also carried out some research work in this area, such as WANG Zi-chun, Cheng Guang-sheng, Fan Hongye, Zhang Jie, asked in the early liberation of our country and the development of the biology of, and so on. In addition, the publication of the biography also many biologists, for the development of the work there are also some important exposition.
Overall, though his predecessors has done some very meaningful work, but a considerable part of these efforts are engaged in biological research and management personnel using amateur time, the situation according to their own professional writing. Most of these works is relatively simple, mainly review the facts. These long series of similar nature of things is to study the information was accumulated very important, but even the collation of historical materials, and its work there still exist many deficiencies. The deeds of the study, scientists are still inadequate. From the research point of view, the lack of historical analysis and less subject to consider the impact between the disciplines of biology and the adjacent infiltration in the study of the social environment impact on the development of biology, has yet to be deepening. There are many people on the field before, the overall research is still inadequate, not fully reflect the history and development of the whole subject which should be summed up experiences and lessons. Some works are purely for the patchwork,错误百出. Not to mention the research work of scientists worldwide in the review, the overall research work in measurement analysis of the literature, and so on. In short, the scope of the study and development of deep-seated problems still not enough, there are a lot of work to be started.
Modern biological research and study the history of modern history, will need to read a lot of relevant information on file, the biologist and the related parties to carry out the necessary interviews, according to detailed and objective historical data to elaborate what the past has happened. In this I have no intention to talk about relevant research methods, but based on past can see, without mentioning some of the original emphasis on the subject but also the development of an important number of issues, in particular the following aspects.
1. Assessment of the work of foreign scholars
During the inspection, the spread of disciplines, the first involving the relevant people and institutions in this regard attention should be paid to a reasonable number of foreigners Review of the work. These people's political inclination and the world as well as research purposes there may be one way or another, but their academic contribution, or should be an objective evaluation. These people are the two categories is the study of China's foreign scholars, and the other is in China's direct knowledge and dissemination of biological theory of scholars. These two aspects of work, less attention to the past. They work for us is the development of modern biology had some influence, such as Britain, France, Russia, Germany and the United States some biologists in the scientific research institutions of China's biological research, for the classification of plants and animals, resources survey For a considerable foundation for the emergence of modern biology is to stimulate and promote the role of Health. In the first category, scholars such as the U.S. representative at Cornell University, Professor Ni Damu (also translated Nidan, J. G. Needham), research works include "China's dragonflies Manual" (Manual ofthe Dragonflies ofChina), including Law Chi, many at Cornell University to study the early Chinese Health
Of Jurists in their subglottic learning; College of Agriculture Dean of the University of California Professor Mel (E.D.Merril1) is similar to the scholars that he had in the Philippines Secretary of the science, botany research has long been engaged in East Asia , The "East Asian botany bibliography" (A Bibliography ofe ~ tem Asiatic Botany, 1938), China's Pei Kam that botanists from his subglottic In addition, such as Harvard University professor Ellen (G. M. Allen) China has long-term study of the beast, published "China and Mongolia, the beast" (e Mammals ofChina andMongolia), and so on. The third category, such as Qi Tianxi (N. G. Gee) 1912, in Soochow University and established the first biological science, and director, one of the founders of China's entomology Mr Fu that is, from his name; Scholars have similar fraternity, the Harvard-Yenching University (A. M. Boring; amphibious reptiles China's one of the founders of Liu Cheng-chiu that is out of her subglottic), Shi De Wei (Albert N. Steward), Ke-li Hu (c.R.Ke1.
1ogg), Wright (s.F.Light), and so on, they are on the biology of early education has been relatively good contribution. They spread in China and the introduction of the biological aspects of work should be given appropriate review.
2 China's early development model of discipline and institutional process
At that time, in this regard to the main biologists inspected the idea of building disciplines and subjects mode of development, and their system of biological disciplines of the efforts.
Early the founders of China's biological disciplines such as physiologist Lin-sheng, zoologist and botanist Law-Hussein cheated, Liu Shen-e are all very entrepreneurial spirit of the well-known scholars, but their fate and academic life of the idea of building Not the same, which reflects the personnel training and the establishment of branches has their own characteristics, but they have excellent performance. For example, from building their own research institutions in the practice, students can see that the countries in which research institutions and schools formed the first to follow the example of the object, such as the United States to study the Law Chi-fu, such as imitation Hussein and the United States Institute for the establishment of Science Society of Westchester Biological Institute at Harvard University's Arnold Arboretum to imitate the establishment of forest Lushan Botanic Garden; scholars in France have tried to France in accordance with the relevant model to the establishment of universities and research institutions. Study the social environment in China at that time appeared in such features, and its subjects in the history of the development of the results, may be very meaningful.
In the disciplines of the system in efforts to establish the academic community is also an important aspect. In this regard the general narrative has many, but his usefulness and effectiveness analysis or deficient. In addition, the introduction of science as the basis of biological terminology and identification of a translation is also very worthy of in-depth study of a problem. Accept the new disciplines, involving a new set of theories and concepts, terminology related to the translation and reunification is a very important aspect. Animals and Plants in China and the whole of biology, the terminology of the Japanese influence is profound, its pros and cons of how to «very worth exploring.
Period of very entrepreneurial biologist with the international academic community to maintain the exchange of academics is able to track the international trend of academic disciplines and an important driving force for rapid progress in the (then paleontology, physiology, anthropology and birds, fish are classified This has been reflected). To achieve such an exchange, the use of foreign language publications published papers is very important, such as "Chinese Journal of Physiology," "China-paleontology," and "Institute of Biological Science Society of China on" the use of foreign languages are a specialized academic papers. But they also noted that the full localization must use their own disciplines for the universal biological knowledge, the only way to make biological sustainable development. Such as "China-paleontology," often foreign-language books translated into Chinese, and "Science" and other publications are generally published a large number of scientific papers and senior Popular Science. Early this attention to the biologists to track international academic developments, and efforts to popularize biological knowledge of both domestic practice is noteworthy.
Discipline in the process of development will inevitably produce some academic thinking of the confrontation. In the 1930s, Hu and Wang Jing-hee had a confrontation on the steps reflected the social reality (they are the original ideology of "trendy" and "tradition" of the difference, is a "trendy" go-getters, is a "Xue Heng" The main force, while they wrote the "independent reviews" in the "New Youth", "relatives" relations).
China has "by the World Bank Zhiyong," the great tradition, but in the nature of the universe and the essence of life in Why, it seems to be some weak. Western modern science-come, we are learning how effective, in addition to classification, the development of the theory of the subjects had what kind of contribution. There are factions, but there are school? «This is also very worthy of in-depth examination.
3 social environment for the development of biological effects
The introduction of modern biological science at a time when China's "poor and weak," the calamity-ridden period. The establishment of the scientific community itself there is a "science to save the country" concept included. On the one hand, the scientific community hopes that the rapid development, the prosperity of the country to become an important tool, on the other hand, it lacks funds to support such a tool. At that time, the development of biology and geology Similarly, a strong pragmatic tendency (boring and the British Chen diverted to illustrate the impact of the socio-economic backwardness, on the theory of the strong and spend more experimental science is the development of A lot of limitations. Also, the National Academy of Peiping by the plant only two microscopes, one of Taiwan or the bad, is enough to note the lack of equipment at that time). On biology, agriculture, forestry services, medical and health was the cause of biologists moment to consider the issue. After all, we want to make a strong country with the desire too urgent. In addition, the traditional social and cultural (by the World Bank Zhiyong) on the impact of this process (the public's understanding of biology, and the impact of this discipline). These topics of science and the choice to carry out the work of
And achievements have all had an impact on. In the course could be considered in general and case studies on the combination.
4 unified scientific planning and identification of the pros and cons of "climbing" the effectiveness of inspection
1949 after the founding of New China, China's restructuring of the science and technology education and scientific research system. This system for our economic backwardness of such a large country, and concentrate the limited human and financial resources, giving priority to the development (some of the continued development) and linked to the national economy closely related to a branch of a prominent role. China's vast number of biologists with the actual national conditions, and following by the World Bank Zhiyong, and explore the great tradition of truth in the development and utilization of biological resources, flora and fauna-prepared, pest and disease control and biological macromolecules, such as protein synthesis and research is made A considerable contribution. However, in practice there are often quick success of the guiding ideology, but also over-emphasized science and technology for politics, the academic exchanges with foreign countries rarely, its negative impact is very serious.
5 political interference in the scientific development of hazards
This aspect of the problem was mainly due to the first half of the 20th century under the previous,后起China as a socialist country in science and technology development in a comprehensive follow the Soviet Union "Big Brother" caused a consequence, of course, have our own reasons. At that time, the ideological influence, to the scientific work of political labels affixed with philosophy and theory instead of scientific conclusions, had a very bad influence. In that period asked, decision-makers formulate a series of extreme leftist line, principles and policies so that biologists can not work properly, some scholars flee abroad. "Anti-Rightist" campaign after the failure to promptly corrected, resulting in the development of the "Cultural Revolution" extreme point, seriously dampened the enthusiasm of large numbers of intellectuals to China's great cause of the biological sciences harm. Has been to implement the reform and opening up in 1978, only to change this situation, in this regard is very serious lessons to be careful summing up.
6 China's development of biological status
In recent years, China's biology is a very rapid progress, but there are many unsatisfactory status quo in place. The most prominent inadequate or lack of innovation. My biology and the development of advanced countries than there are still gaps in biotechnology and genetic engineering, neuroscience, developmental biology, and other cutting-edge fields, our original results still inadequate. Western developed countries still use their technological superiority, low-cost access to China's germplasm resources and high prices to sell their patent. China says economic development and social progress while making a tremendous contribution to, but in biological pharmaceuticals, national health care, reproductive health, biodiversity and germplasm resources protection, external monitoring of biological invasion, a major biological disaster warning, the global Climate warming on the impact of China's biological and countermeasures, and other aspects of our work is far from being to achieve the desired objectives. Where problems arise, the fundamental reason for what is very worthy of our consideration. Perhaps our culture is a more utilitarian focus on the culture, understanding of its natural life or the nature of limited interest. We may also be the introduction of Western science, cognitive science
And it called for the development of the social environment and management philosophy and education there is some bias. Because today, because of institutional reasons, our research work there are still large number of low-level duplication, issues such as lack of basic research, research topics instant success, only concerned about the number of published articles, research can not be concerned about the depth and quality of the papers. This, in turn, and the prevailing academic community as a whole impetuous closely related.
We are continuing to introduce advanced foreign technology and biological science theory, in other words, in the past domestic scholars to face the academic introduction, spread and how to speed up their biological development issues still exist today. Review of the past course of development, no doubt can provide useful lessons.
Cash and cash equivalents Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank and on hand ,deposits with banks and other financial institutions ,and short-term ,highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subiect to an insignificant risk of changes in value, having been within there months of maturity at acquisition.
1 Significant accounting policies (continued)(1) Impairment losses (i) Impairment of investments in equity securities ,trade and other receivableInvestments in equity securities and trade and other receivable that are stated at cost or amortised cost are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is objective evidence of impairment .
If any such evidence exists ,any impairment loss is determined and recognised as follow :For unquoted equity securities carried at cost ,the impairment loss is measured as the difference between the carrying amount of the financial asset and the estimated future cash flows ,discounted at the current market rate of return for a similar financial asset where the effect of discounting is material ,Impairment losses for equity securities are not reversed .
For trade and other receivables and other financial assets carried at amortised cost ,the impairment loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows ,discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate (i.e. the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition of these assets),where the effect of discounting is material.
If in a subsequent period the amount of an impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be linked objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognised ,the impairment loss is reversed through the consolidated statement of income .
A reversal of an impairment loss shall not result in the asset’s carrying amount ex
Yesterday I went to the dentist‘s to have a decayed tooth pull out .
备注：相信应该只有一颗蛀牙，直接用a 或者the特指好了，不要用one of.
Salary for employee depends on enducational background and work experience.
备注：depend on本身就是“取决于” 的意思，所以“不同”再翻译出来就是重复啰嗦了。
The application of information technology will lead to great progress in developing countries.
The application of information technology will lead developing countries to great progress.
You dispose of problems in a wrong manner .
Scientists assume that humans are on the verge of finding effective methods to concqer cancers.
Divorce can't be taken lightly.
I am sorry for the problem. In this case I have separated the table from the previous spreadsheet and sended it as a new file. Please check it and hope you will make it.
一个双目失明的男孩坐在屋前的梯级，脚边摆着他的帽子。他指着一个告示板说： “我是盲人，请帮帮忙。” 帽子里只有少数几个硬币。
Is that a popular subject in China?
In my point of view, it’s not a very popular subject in China. Financial Engineering is still a newly-developed subject here and not a popular subject at present and have promising future indeed.
• What are the most popular subjects (= university degree courses) in China?
On the basis of current trends, the most popular subject is Finance and Banking. Because of the apparent wealth effect in China, there are so many people engaged in baking, which makes this project most popular.
• How is your school (or university)?
Our school is a famous commercial college in south China. There are so many nice students longing to be admitted by my school for the top-grade teachers and facilities.
• Which is the best university in your country (or, city)?
In my opinion, Sun Yat-sen University is one of the most famous universities in China. She Is established by Mr.Sun Yat-sen. She has a long history and very strong scientific researching strength.
我想Sun Yat-sen University 是国内最著名的高校之一。他是Sun Yat-sen先生创办的一所大学，拥有悠久的历史和相当强悍的科研实力。
• For you, what's the most interesting part (or subject or class) of your course?
I would like to say the most interesting part of my course is that we can learn how can we design and develop those financial product, which will surely contribute to learning the substance of financial derivatives on the market today.
• Are there any particular skills that you learn in your studies?
We can make use of varies of software, such as MATLAB, eviews to make simulation experiment on particular problems, during which I also learn some useful programming skills.
• How do you like university life? ( = How do you feel about life at university?)
Compared to the tensed high school life, here life in college is relatively easy in some extents, which provides us more time to play basketball, to go touring and to attend a lot of social activities.
• In addition to gaining knowledge, what other ways have you benefited from your school/university experience?
In college, I have participated a lot of clubs besides school studying , which greatly contribute to my social abilities.
• In your free time, do you do anything with your classmates?
Yes of course, we play ball together, have meals together besides having parties!
• What "study tools" (or equipment) do you use?
Computer. It can help me with my learning. Some computing is very complex and will cost a lot of time unnecessarily. With computer, a lot of time spared and work will be more effective and more efficient.
• What facilities are there at your school/university to help you in your studies?
Our school has our own financial database, which provide us some useful figures. That help a lot with our studying and researching.
This agreement/contract is made and entered in to this ______day of______(month)，______(year) by and between
Party A (hereinafter called “ Party A ”)and Party B(hereinafter called “ Party B ”)
然后是开始陈述： WHEREAS...THEREFORE ... It is hereby agreed as follows或以： WITNESSETH， WHEREAS... NOW THEREFORE， for and in consideration of the mutual covenants and agreements contained herein， the parties
hereby covenant and agree as follows:
接着是正文，最后是证明部分： IN WITNESS WHEREOF，the parties hereto have hereunto set their hands the day and years first above written.
may，shall，must，may not(或shall not)的使用；may，shall， must，may not (或shall not)对学过英语的人来说再
熟悉不过了，但在合同中用这些词时要极其谨慎。 权利义务的约定部分构成了合同的主体。这几个词如选用不当，可能会引起纠纷。 may旨在约定当事人的权利（可以做什么），shall约定当事人的义务（应当做什么时候），must用于强制性义务（必须做什么
），may not (或shall not)用于禁止性义务（不得做什么）。may do不能说成can do，shall do，不能说成should do或ought to
do， may not do
正式用语（formal term） 合同英语有着严肃的风格，与其它英语作品有着很大不同之处。例如： “因为”的短语多用“by virtue of ”，远远多于“due to”，一般不用“because of ”； “财务年度末”一般用“at the close of the fiscal year”，而不用“in the end of the fiscal year”； “在……之前”一般用“prior to”，而不用“before”； “关于”用“regards”，“concerning”或“relating to”，而不会用“about”； “事实上”用“in effect”，而不用“in fact”；“开始”
用“commencement”，而不用“start”或“begin"； “停止做”用“cease to do”，而不用“stop to do”； “何时开会并由某某主持”的表述为：The meeting shall be convened and presided by sb. “其他事项”用“miscellaneous”，而不用“other matters/events”； “理解合同”用“construe a contract”或
“comprehend a contract”，而不用“understand a contract”; “认为”用
用词专业（technical terms） 合同用词不以大众是否理解和接受为转移，它是合同语言准确表达的保障。如合同出现的“瑕疵”、“救济”、“不可抗力”
、“管辖”、“损毁”、“灭失”等就可能让非行业人士费解，用以上英语表达分别为defect，remedy，force majeure /Act of
God，jurisdiction，damage and/or loss。另外几乎每个合同都少不了hereinafter referred to as ，such... as ，whereas，
in witness whereof， for and on behalf of ， hereby， thereof 等虚词，就其中几个细说： 比如：
1. Hereby: by means of; by reason of this之意，即特此，因此，兹等意。常用于法律文件、合同协议的正式文件的开头
语，在条款中需要强调时也可用。举原文说明，如：The Employer hereby covenants to pay the Contractor in consideration
of the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of defects therein the Contract Price or such other
sum as may become payable under the provisions of the Contract at the time and in the manner prescribed by the
Contract. 文中： ★hereby意为 by reason of this，特此的意思。 ★ therein意为in the Works在本工程中。 ★ such...as是关系代词，相当于that， which，把要限定的词置于such与as之间使要限定的名词十分明确，避免合同双方在
理解上发生争议。 其它的还有： “赔偿”用“indemnities”，而不用“compensation” “不动产出让”用“conveyance”，而不用“transfer of real estate”“房屋出租”用
“tenancy”，而“财产出租”用“lease of property”“停业”用“wind up a business”或“cease (名词是cessation) a business”，而不用“end/stop a business”。 还款或专利申请的“宽限期”英文为“grace”， “当事人在破产中的和解”用“composition” “依照合同相关规定”一般说成“pursuant to provisions contained herein”或“as provided herein”等，不说成
“according to relevant terms and conditions in the contract”。“合同任何一方当事人不得转让本合同”英文表述为“Neither party hereto may assign this contract”，其中“hereto
”表示“to the contract”，选用“Neither party to the contract”较少。
FOR value RECEIVED，the undersigned does hereby sell， transfer， assign and set over to _____all his right，
tile and interest in and to a certain contract dated_____， 19 _____by and between the undersigned and _____，a
copy of which is annexed hereto.
在这里的同义词和近义词并列（如sell， transfer， assign and set over，right和 tile and interest），在英文合同里
十分普遍。这是出于严谨和杜绝漏洞的考虑，有的也属于合同用语的固定模式。如： This agreement is made and entered into by and between Party A and Party B.句中“made and entered into”和“by
For and in consideration of mutual covenants and agreements contained herein， the parties hereby covenant and
agree as follows: 句中“for and in consideration of ”， “covenants and agreements”三组同义司和近义词并列。The parties have agreed to vary the Management on the terms and subject to the conditions contained herein. 这
里的“on the terms”和“subject to the conditions”是一个意思，都表示“依照本协议的条款规定”。合同条款的固定模式
是“terms and conditions”
再例如：“Party A wishes to be released and discharged from agreement as from the effective date”，一句的“release”和“discharge”的意思几乎相同。并列的词还有： ships and vessels ，support and maintenance ，licenses and permits ，charges， fees， costs and expenses， any and all ，any duties， obligations or liabilities ，the partners， their heirs， successors and assigns 。
数量等。为了避免出差错，在英译合同时，常常使用一些有限定作用的结构来界定细目所指定的确切范围。A. 限定责任 众所周知，合同中要明确规定双方的责任。为英译出双方责任的权限与范围，常常使用连词和介词的固定结构。
and/or常用 and/or 英译合同中“甲和乙+甲或乙”的内容，这样就可避免漏译其中的一部分。
例1：如果上述货物对船舶和（或）船上其它货物造成任何损害，托运人应负全责。 The shipper shall be liable for all damage caused by such goods to the ship and/or cargo on board.
by and between 常用by and between强调合同是由“双方”签订的，因此双方必须严格履行合同的责任。例2：买卖双方同意按下述条款购买
出售下列商品并签订本合同。 This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller，whereby the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller
agrees to sell the undermentioned commodity subject to the terms and conditions stipulated below. B. 限定时间英译与时间有关的文字，都应非常严格慎重地处理，因为合同对时间的要求是准确无误。所以英译起止时间时，
双介词 用双介词英译含当天日期在内的起止时间。 例3:自9月20日起，甲方已无权接受任何定单或收据。Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any orders or to collect any account on and after September 20. 例4：我公司的条件是，3个月内，即不得晚于5月1日，支付现金。 Our terms are cash within three months， i.e. on or before May 18.104.22.168 not (no) later than用“not (no) later
than +日期”英译“不迟于某月某日”。例5：本合同签字之日一个月内，即不迟于12月15日，你方须将货物装船。Party B shall ship the goods within one month of the date of signing this Contract， i.e. not later than
This credit expires till January 1(inclusive) for negotiation in Beijing. (or This credit expires till and
including January 1 for negotiation in Beijing.) 如果不包括1月1日在内，英译为till and not including January 1。
致。例7：聘方须每月付给受聘方美元500元整。 Party A shall pay Party B a monthly salary of US $ 500 (SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY).
Can $891，568，不能写成：Can $ 891，568。另外，翻译时还要特别注意金额中是小数点(.)还是分节号(，)，因为这两个符号极